The following is the Feb. 9, 2022, Congressional Research Service In Focus report, U.S. Security Assistance to Ukraine.
From the report
In response to Russia’s recent escalation of military pressure on Ukraine, the Biden Administration and the 117th Congress have considered multiple options to boost security assistance to Ukraine. Even prior to recent tensions, Ukraine was a leading recipient of U.S. military aid in Europe and Eurasia. Since Russia’s 2014 invasion of Ukraine, the United States has committed more than $2.7 billion in State and Defense Department (DOD)-funded security assistance to help Ukraine defend its territorial integrity and improve interoperability with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Overview of Programs Since 2014
The United States has used a variety of security assistance programs and authorities to help build the defensive capacity of the Ukrainian Armed Forces (UAF) through train, equip, and advise efforts across multiple spending accounts. Two of the primary mechanisms are State’s Foreign Military Financing (FMF; 22 U.S.C. §2763) and DOD’s Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative (USAI; P.L. 114-92, §1250)
USAI packages have included training, equipment, and advisory efforts to enhance Ukraine’s defensive capabilities such as maritime domain awareness, operational safety and capacity of Air Force bases, and the lethality, command and control, and survivability of the UAF. USAI also supports cyber defense and strategic communications to counter Russian cyberattacks and misinformation. A large portion of annual USAI funds are contingent on DOD and State certifying Ukraine’s progress on key defense reforms.
Ukraine also has received assistance pursuant to DOD’s security cooperation authorities, notably 10 U.S.C. §333 and 10 U.S.C. §332. Section 333 authorizes training, equipping, and small-scale military construction for specific types of operations. Section 332 promotes civilian control of the military and places civilian advisors from DOD in Ukraine’s Ministry of Defense.
The Presidential Drawdown Authority (PDA), in which the President can authorize the transfer of articles and services from U.S. stocks without congressional approval in response to an “unforeseen emergency,” also has provided defense items to Ukraine since 2014. In August 2021, the Biden Administration authorized a $60 million drawdown (Foreign Assistance Act, §506(a)(1)) for the immediate transfer of defense items from DOD stocks. In December 2021, the Administration authorized a $200 million drawdown after Congress, through passage of P.L. 117-70, increased the §506(a)(1) cap from $100 million to $200 million.
Since 2014, Ukraine also has received International Military Education and Training (IMET) assistance, which has provided professional military education at U.S. defense institutions for about 370 junior, mid-level, and senior Ukrainian military officers.
Through the Joint Multinational Training Group-Ukraine, established in 2015, the U.S. Army and National Guard, together with military trainers from U.S. allied states, have provided training, mentoring, and doctrinal assistance to the UAF. The U.S. military also conducts joint military exercises with Ukraine. Separately, U.S. Special Operations Forces have trained and advised Ukrainian Special Forces. Other State Department and DOD-funded security assistance has supported conventional weapons destruction, border security, law enforcement training, and counter-weapons of mass destruction capabilities.
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