Home » Foreign Forces » Iron Fist 2018 Ramps Up Training as Japan Readies 1st Amphibious Unit


Iron Fist 2018 Ramps Up Training as Japan Readies 1st Amphibious Unit

Marines with 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit and Soldiers with Western Army Infantry Regiment, Japan Ground Self Defense Force stand in formation as part of the Exercise Iron Fist 2018 opening ceremony on Jan. 12. US Marine Corps Photo

CAMP PENDLETON, Calif. — With its official operational date fast approaching, Japan’s first Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade kicked off the bilateral Iron Fist 2018 exercise on Friday with an opening ceremony alongside its Marine Corps hosts. It wasn’t a time for long speeches.

Over the next month, 350 soldiers with the Japan Ground Self Defense Force will train closely with Marines to hone skills that will run the gamut from amphibious reconnaissance and fire-and-maneuver assaults to close-air support and staff planning. They will fire mortars and artillery, land on beaches aboard rubber boats and assault craft and attack and defend “friendly” land from foes in various training scenarios.

The soldiers are members of Western Army Infantry Regiment, a light infantry force that Japan has tasked with creating the first brigade of sea soldiers – with the goal to be ready by April 1, 2018 – that can conduct amphibious operations ultimately as part of a broader “dynamic joint defense force.”

This year’s Iron Fist exercise – it runs from Jan. 12 to Feb. 12 – marks the 13th iteration of the annual training that focuses on amphibious operations, with I Marine Expeditionary Force as a primary host.

With a 2012 decision by Japan to create amphibious rapid deployment brigades, Iron Fist’s training focus has shifted toward building that “go-to” force, as envisioned, to quickly respond when needed to protect Japan’s many islands from threats and harm, whether to its national security or from natural disasters.

Officials from both countries tout the continuing, growing relationship and partnership among the various branches of the U.S. military and self-defense force. “We live in a very dangerous and complex world. There are numerous threats aimed at the United States. It is truly reassuring to work together,” Col. Fridrik “Fred” Fridriksson, the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit commander, said in a short speech to the crowd gathered at a Camp Del Mar parade ground.

Col. Fridrik Fridrikson the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit Commanding Officer gives a speech to attendees of the Exercise Iron Fist 2018 opening ceremony Jan. 12. US Marine Corps Photo

Japan is a “vital ally,” Fridriksson said, noting that long-running, bilateral exercises “will ensure that if danger comes to one of our countries, we will fight together and defeat this threat.”

Japan has been working in recent years to build a “joint dynamic defense force,” with the ARDB is a key part of that. It has partnered with the Marine Corps and the Navy, leaning on their long expertise in amphibious, blue-green missions and joint operations at sea to develop comparable tactics, techniques and procedures for the new brigade force.

Since the first iteration in 2006, Iron Fist training in recent years has shifted from a larger focus on disaster relief and humanitarian operations to include island defense, or what’s described as “recapturing invaded islands,” according to the key JGSDF missions and ARDB roles, according to its Ministry of Defense website.

Col. Ryuji Toyota, who commands the Western Army Infantry Regiment based on the island of Kyushu, spoke just briefly during the ceremony, noting such exercises enable the “step by step” development of the unit’s amphibious capabilities.

Toyota, assisted by a translator, read a message from Maj. Gen. Shinichi Aoki, the Western Army deputy chief of staff, who said Iron Fist provides a “precious opportunity to train” the forces and help in organizing the ARDB. Aoki, in his message, noted reforms including the brigade’s development the Ministry of Defense is doing to strengthen the U.S.-Japan alliance, but he also noted threats from “various challenges and unstable partners, such as further development of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles.”

Japan Ground Self Defense Force soldiers establish security after exiting an Assault Amphibian Vehicle, during Exercise Iron Fist 2017, aboard Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Calif. on Feb. 25, 2017. US Marine Corps Photo

Exercise scenarios, as developed by planners to support the force’s training objectives, include taking back a contested island and reinforcing it with additional forces, officials said. “It is designed very similar to the stuff we normally do,” Fridriksson told reporters after the ceremony. “We are just trying to improve the Japanese amphibious capabilities… Island defense can be one of them.”

Whether future training scenarios would incorporate a nuclear threat isn’t clear, but Toyota’s comment acknowledges an obvious, underlying unease around the Pacific Rim. “I know we are taking steps on many many levels to help out and work with the Japanese on this,” Fridriksson said in response to a question about Toyota’s nuclear concerns. “ Myself, I have very, very good friends that live on the mainland of Japan, and they are concerned about it. So I can see why he is as well.”

During this year’s Iron Fist, the JGSDF soldiers will conduct training at Camp Pendleton and in the desert at the Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center at Twentynine Palms, Calif., as well as on the Navy’s offshore San Clemente Island and aboard USS Rushmore (LSD-47), officials said.

“What they’ve asked for is, ‘let’s not regress from what we learned last year, let’s try to move forward.’ So it is a little bit more advanced,” Fridriksson said. “There will be a little bit more combined arms, there will be a little bit more live fire, and it will be a little bit more technical… This is really designed to support the Japanese and do what they want to do.”

“Japan is investing a lot of time and a lot of money and, incredibly, soldiers to this exercise. This is really, really exciting for us,” he added.

The vast live-fire and maneuver ranges and assault beaches are highly sought-out by the JGSDF as soldiers are limited in the ranges available to them at home in Japan. Some of the soldiers have trained at the California bases in previous exercises, although more than half are participating in Iron Fist for the first time, according to a Marine liaison to the force told USNI News.

A Japan Ground Self Defense Force soldier gives orders to bound after exiting an Assault Amphibious Vehicle, during Exercise Iron Fist 2017, aboard Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Calif., Feb. 25, 2017. US Marine Corps

“This is the big milestone,” said Maj. Paul S. Smith, a communications officer by training who recently started his assignment as a Marine liaison officer with the Western Army Infantry Regiment.

“We want to build up, hopefully, their expertise and capabilities that they have so far,” said Smith, one of three liaisons currently assigned as work with the JGSDF.

“A big part is working with the (Japan) Maritime Self Defense Force. There’s a lot of exchanges going on,” he said, adding that “it’s progressing. There’s still a lot of work to be done.”

A few JMSDF officers attended the opening ceremony, but Japan has no ship participating in the exercise.

Bolstering that blue-green relationship within Japan’s joint force will be critical, noted a research analyst who closely follows U.S.-Japan defense issues.

“The GSDF is trying its best to get the ARDB up and running – and is making good progress,” retired Marine Lt. Col. Grant Newsham, a former liaison officer in Japan, told USNI News. “It’s worth noting that as late as 2012, the idea of an ARDB was unthinkable. Even the idea of a real amphibious capability was taboo in the Japanese political world, and even inside the JSDF. There were ‘reformers’ however who knew what needed to be done – and Iron Fist sort of kept the flame alive.”

Marines with 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 1st Marine Division and Western Army Infantry Regiment, Japan Ground Self Defense Force stand in formation as part of the Exercise Iron Fist 2018 opening ceremony on Jan. 12. US Marine Corps Photo

Still, Newsham said, there are challenges particularly in building that joint capability. “One of the shortcomings is that GSDF and MSDF are not coordinating their efforts the way they should,” he said. “It’s kind of done in parallel, and that’s the wrong way to do things. Look around at Iron Fist and ask where the MSDF is.”

Having additional maritime officers “plugged in” with the ground forces as well as with the Marine Corps and Navy, he said, are needed for them to build a credible joint amphibious capability.

With its April 1 target ahead, the ARDB won’t be near brigade size, in personnel and in equipment.

Key to the brigade’s ability to rapidly deploy with amphibious capabilities are the MV-22B Osprey tiltrotor aircraft and the AAV-7, the amphibious assault vehicle used by Marines, both of which Japan is purchasing for the new force.

The ARDB currently has four amtracs in hand, Smith told USNI News on Friday. As many as 30 vehicles were planned to be available by the time the first ARDB unit is stood up by April 1. But last month, news agencies in Japan reported that “production delays” in amtracs or parts will delay the fielding of the vehicles by at least several months.

  • Rob C.

    Did they bring their tank landing ships too? They need train those guys too.

  • publius_maximus_III

    The USMC needs to help this new ARDB realize that sometimes, after they are transported to a beachhead by the Navy, circumstances may dictate that they will be “on their own” for some unknown period until they can be reinforced and replenished from the sea (thinking back half a century to Guadalcanal). They will probably be better equipped to withstand a prolonged engagement than say paratroopers, but probably not as well as entrenched ground forces they might be attacking. Of course, modern airpower makes some lessons from the past no longer applicable.

    • RTColorado

      Actually, the Japanese had quite a bit of experience in amphibious landings as well as airborne assaults during World War Two….granted that was awhile ago, but the Japanese can read their own history to realize that amphibious assaults are a risky business in the best of circumstances and nearly suicidal against organized resistance. I suspect the Japanese realize that using an amphibious force is more of a way of moving forces from one friendly point to another or at most using it as a “flanking” maneuver. The USMC is probably the only force on earth that is capable of an actual amphibious assault against opposition, but it would be costly and as a “stand alone” event, suicidal even for them.

      • LazyFlyBall

        Suicidal against who?

        Working backwards for possible contingency operations we participated in on some level: Marawi City, Tartus, Tripoli or Misurata, Kuwait City… those all seem doable.

        They would for sure have a hard time on mainland Russia or China (Taiwan too), and North Korea and Iran would cause problems, but outside that, I’m pretty sure they’d be fine anywhere else. Even places like Egypt or Turkey or Brazil seem doable under certain conditions.

        India might not work, they have nukes. But, in general, I think the ineffectiveness of amphibious assault is overblown.

        Edit: remember the 1991 air campaign was 100 days long, focus 2018 USAF/USN air power like that on a beachhead for that long and it’s going to crumble.

        • RTColorado

          Yeah, the Marines could storm ashore on the Jersey Shore too…but let’s be serious for a moment. The notion that the Marines will ever perform another Iwo Jima or Pelileu or Inchon style landing are beyond sane reasoning. Modern weaponry makes massed landing against an organized enemy force suicidal. Granted used as a flanking manuever or landing at an undefended beach or port is still a realistic option. In the age of modern monitoring, you don’t actually believe anyone is “sneaking up” on some shoreline and launching a surprise amphibious assault. Just like large airborne assaults, which would be suicidal against an organized enemy force, amphibious landings have been relegated to being a means of moving forces between defended points. There are too many better ways of quickly seizing an airport or harbor than large landing forces.

      • Gerry Wright

        Russia could pull off a moderate size amphibious landing, but it would be difficult. Both USMC and Russian Marines would fight hard if ordered into that situation, I can’t see any enthusiasm in any other Nations Marines including the British.

        • RTColorado

          No one is pulling any amphibious assaults…maybe landing on uncontested beaches where they can swarm over Park Rangers or Lifeguards…but ain’t nobody is going to do the Iwo Jima/Omaha Beach style landing ever again.

  • PolicyWonk

    Its hard to blame the Japanese for training and equipping for amphibious warfare, especially given China’s ever-increasing diplomatic belligerence. Patrick Buchanan predicted this would happen when he repeatedly implored the administration of George W Bush to cease the massive technology transfers to communist China, in which we gave away more dual-use technologies in less than 6 years than all other years *combined* (let alone the 6M+ jobs, loss of the tax base, and a large portion of the US strategic manufacturing reserve).

    The 2008 US National Intelligence Estimate) declared these transfers a massive national security disaster not only for the US, but for all of China’s neighbors as well, as they predicted the Chinese use the technologies to bolster/accelerate their military build-up, and start settling old scores in the region.

    We’ll be living with the consequences of these terrible, short-sighted, and seemingly obvious mistakes, for a very, Very long time.

  • Poshboy

    As a Second World War historian, seeing these images is…really, really odd. Especially seeing that red meatball flying over California.

    But it does show how much history has changed over the last 70 years. Instead of defending China like we did in the 1940s, we might be doing the exact opposite to it with our…Japanese allies.

    Now my fingers and well-educated brain are not working together…