Report to Congress on U.S. Policy and the War in Ukraine

June 11, 2024 7:18 AM

The following is the Congressional Research Service report, Russia’s War on Ukraine: U.S. Policy and the Role of Congress.

From the report

On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, a country Russia first invaded in 2014 and has partially occupied for a decade. The war has led to hundreds of thousands of killed or wounded, according to U.S. and other estimates, and the displacement of more than nine million people as of May 2024, according to international humanitarian organizations. In 2024, Russia has conducted multiple offensives, seizing some additional Ukrainian towns and settlements. Ukraine continues to wage defensive operations, bolstered by military assistance mainly from the United States and Europe.

“The General Assembly … reaffirms its commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Ukraine [and] declares that the unlawful actions of the Russian Federation … have no validity under international law.” U.N. General Assembly Resolution ES-11/4, Oct. 12, 2022

Leaders of the United States, NATO, the European Union (EU), and other partners have called the war against Ukraine “unprovoked and unjustified.” The United States, in coordination with the EU, NATO, and others, has provided substantial assistance to Ukraine, imposed a series of increasingly severe sanctions on Russia and its enablers, and sought to promote accountability for Russian war crimes. To deter further aggression, the United States and NATO have increased their military presence in Central and Eastern Europe. In the United States, policymakers and observers continue to consider the impact of assistance to Ukraine, the effectiveness of sanctions, the course of the conflict, and the implications of a protracted war. Congress may consider additional actions and oversight with respect to these and related issues.

Assistance to Ukraine

Since FY2022, Congress has enacted five supplemental appropriations measures providing assistance to Ukraine and other countries affected by the war, as well as related funding. Of a total $174.2 billion in emergency appropriations made available by these acts, including $60.8 billion in FY2024 supplemental appropriations (P.L. 118-50, Division B), Congress has appropriated about $127.6 billion for assistance to Ukraine and other countries affected by the war. Of this amount, about $77.4 billion has been for security assistance (including to replace U.S. defense articles provided to Ukraine), $40.3 billion for economic assistance, and $9.8 billion for humanitarian assistance. Congress appropriated another $44.6 billion to support U.S. military operations in Europe and other U.S. government responses to the war, including for sanctions enforcement and refugee and entrant assistance (about $2.1 billion has been appropriated for other global assistance purposes).

For Ukraine specifically, the Biden Administration to date has committed more than $51 billion in security assistance, $22.9 billion in direct financial assistance (with another $7.85 billion anticipated for FY2024), and $2.3 billion in humanitarian assistance since February 2022. The Administration also has provided, according to CRS estimates, around $5 billion for Ukraine’s energy, governance, and agriculture sectors, among others, and to support the needs of Ukrainian refugees in other countries.

As of April 2024, European countries and EU institutions had made available more than $100 billion in assistance for Ukraine since February 2022, including more than $45 billion in security assistance. In February 2024, EU leaders approved an additional $54 billion in assistance to Ukraine, to be disbursed through 2027. The EU has allocated an additional $18 billion to provide for the needs of Ukrainian refugees in Europe; individual EU members also have provided refugee assistance. Japan, Canada, other countries, and international organizations also have provided assistance to Ukraine.

Download the document here.

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