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Next Generation Engine Work Points to Future U.S. Fighter Designs

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A Boeing artist's conception of a potential design for F/A-XX. Boeing Photo

A Boeing artist’s conception of a potential design for F/A-XX. Boeing Photo

The U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force are in the earliest stages of creating the requirements for their next generation of fighters but development of the engines that will power those aircraft are already well underway — and provide hints on what American sixth-generation aircraft will be able to do. One thing is already clear, both aircraft will be fast, long range and extremely efficient.

The engines for the F/A-XX and F-X programs will be the single most technologically challenging part of their development. As such, the Pentagon has already started work on developing those next generation propulsion systems.

Company officials with engine makers Pratt & Whitney and General Electric spoke with USNI News on the development work on their respective concepts to power those future combat aircraft.

“What we are seeing today, and this is especially true in all of the discussions around sixth-generation types of airplanes, the propulsion system capability is in fact driving a lot of the thinking about the size of the airframe, what the inlets and exhausts are going to look like, how much fuel capacity the aircraft has to have to meet the range requirements,” said Dan McCormick, General Electric’s general manager for adaptive-cycle engine programs.
“The propulsion system very much needs to be integrated into the design process of these next-generation airplanes.”

Both companies have started working on revolutionary new adaptive-cycle jet engines that will power the successors to the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor.

These advanced engines would be able to vary their bypass ratios for optimum efficiency at any combination of speed and altitude within the aircraft’s operating range unlike today’s engines that are at their best at a single point in the flight envelope.

The powerplants have to be ready well ahead of air vehicle development—as both the Air Force and Navy discovered in the 1970s with the McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle and Grumman F-14A Tomcat with both type encountering severe difficulties with their engines.

Some of the key requirements for those next-generation fighters can be extrapolated from the goals set forth by the Air Force Research Laboratory and Office of Naval Research for their respective research and development efforts.

The Air Force has its Adaptive Versatile Engine Technology (ADVENT), Adaptive Engine Technology Development and NextGen programs mature next generation engine technology for a future F-X fighter while the Navy has its Variable Cycle Advanced Technology (VCAT) program looking at how those same technologies could be adapted for naval aviation.
Jeff Martin, General Electric’s expert on sixth-generation fighter propulsion, said that some of those extrapolated requirements suggest that a sixth-generation warplane will have much longer range than existing strike aircraft.

Further, the aircraft will be fast—with very high acceleration—and it will have excellent subsonic cruise efficiency.
“The bottom-line is it’s going to have to be a variable-cycle engine to meet those kinds of needs and not be a humongous airplane,” Martin said.

A variable-cycle engine would be able configure itself for maximum efficiency at any combination of speeds and altitudes. For example, it could act almost like a turbojet at supersonic speeds while performing like a high-bypass turbofan for efficient cruising at airliner speeds.
The indications thus far point towards aircraft designs that would have the finess ratio needed to supercruise—even if the requirements do not explicitly call for such a capability.

“The Navy has talked about a deck launched intercept mission where you get up and go, and get up some number hundred nautical miles away and you get there as fast as you can, as efficiently as you can,” Martin said.

That mission would be reminiscent of the F-14, which was designed to launch off the deck to intercept hordes of Soviet bombers before they could launch their payload of cruise missiles. While that mission disappeared after the collapse of the Soviet Union, a fast rising China may eventually pose a similar threat to the carrier strike group.

“It’s not clear to me that supercruise is going to be a major requirement, but it’s also not clear to me that it makes any difference at all. The airplane is going to have a pretty good fineness ratio, it’s going to be a supersonic airplane. And when its got that, and its got a variable-cycle engine in it, it’s going to be able to supercruise,” Martin said. “But whether they do it or not is a different story because to you do use more fuel when you supercruise.”

Tightly knit partnership

An artist conception of the Pratt & Whitney F-135 engine for the F-35B Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter.

An artist conception of the Pratt & Whitney F-135 engine for the F-35B Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter.

While the Navy and Air Force have separate programs, they are working closely together according to AFRL officials.

“The engine community is a tight knit group, we’ve had full transparency with the Navy,” the AFRL said in a statement released to USNI News.
“They’ve been invited and we welcome their participation in all the reviews. We gain additional insights from their subject matter expertise. They are a true partner in ADVENT and AETD.”
Martin offered some more details about the Navy effort.

“The VCAT program is really aimed a Navy specific items that they’re going to need for their next-gen fighter that would be additive to what AFRL is doing,” he said.
According to Martin, the VCAT effort—which will eventually lead to some propulsion rig testing—has proven to be extremely valuable. The Navy project has yielded important information on defining the exact cycles the engines should operate in—and that the airframe and engines need to be treated as an integrated whole.

For Pratt & Whitney, the VCAT effort also meant looking at if other parts of the engine—it might not just be the fan might be variable, said James Kenyon, general manager for next gen fighter engines for Pratt & Whitney. “It does bring a much greater degree of variability,” he said. “You may express than in a change in the bypass ratio a or change in some other things, but there is a great amount of flexibility that goes into that.”
Technological Maturity

For the Air Force, the goal is to ensure that the engine is at a relatively high level of technological maturity for a Milestone A decision in 2018 to proceed with the technology development phase of the F-X fighter.

However, a production engine would not have to be ready until a Milestone B decision to enter the engineering and manufacturing development stage. “Generally the thinking in here is that if you’re at TRL [technology readiness level] 6 by Milestone B, you’re in good shape,” Martin said.

With adaptive engine technology already set to hit the TRL-6 milestone before the end of the year, a production engine could be ready by 2021 if necessary.

One of the key technologies behind the adaptive-cycle engine is the adaptive fan, which allows the engine to vary its bypass ratio depending on its altitude and speed due to a third stream of air. Air flows through the third stream as needed to increase or decrease the bypass ratio of the engine—or alternatively use the extra airflow for cooling.

“We can effectively vary the performance of the engine across the flight envelope,” Kenyon said.
At high-supersonic speed, the third stream can reduce spill drag by letting the excess air flow through the engine—however performance above about Mach 2.2 is still limited by the physics of air inlet geometry. “The third stream does help supersonically very much,” McCormick said.

For example, a fighter with an adaptive-cycle engine would use a low-bypass configuration where there is little bypass air flowing around the engine core during take-off and supersonic flight where high specific thrust is needed.

But the high jet-velocities of a low-bypass high specific thrust configuration mean low propulsive efficiency—which is bad for efficient cruise speeds. Thus, an adaptive fan would allow an engine to switch to a high bypass configuration for high propulsive efficiency once established on cruise conditions.

But it is not just the adaptive fan that will make future adaptive-cycle engines much more efficient than existing engines, new materials will allow the engine to run much hotter and at far greater pressure ratios than is currently possible.

The first variable-cycle fighter engine was the early-1990s-era General Electric YF120 engine that lost to what became the Pratt & Whitney F119 that powers the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. “The YF120 engine was an adaptive-cycle engine focused in a totally different area,” McCormick said. “The ADVENT and AETD are primarily focused on fuel efficiency, certainly there is additional thrust capability for the AETD as well as significant improvements in thermal management. But the YF120 engine it was an adaptive cycle engine focused very much on the supercruise requirement of the aircraft.”

First Steps

ADVENT (ADaptive Versatile ENgine Technology) engine core in its test cell at GE facilities in Evendale, Ohio. GE Aviation System Photo

ADVENT (ADaptive Versatile ENgine Technology) engine core in its test cell at GE facilities in Evendale, Ohio. GE Aviation System Photo

The Air Force undertook its first steps towards developing sixth-generation variable-cycle engine with the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Adaptive Versatile Engine Technology (ADVENT) program in 2007. The AFRL’s goal was to bring the next-generation engine technology up to what the Pentagon calls TRL-6 and manufacturing readiness level six (MRL-6) — which means that prototypes can be readily built and tested “revelant” environment.

General Electric and Rolls-Royce were each awarded a six-year contract to produce demonstrator engines under the ADVENT effort. Pratt & Whitney’s ADVENT design was not selected for the program, but the company continued to pour its own resources into developing its technology in the hopes of securing follow-on work.

Pratt & Whitney’s efforts were centered on an early developmental version of a fan for the F135 engine that powers the Lockheed F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, Kenyon said.

The company used the fan to demonstrate an adaptive fan capability on a test rig at its compressor research facility.

“In that test we were able to demonstrate the ability to control the flow through the different streams,” Kenyon said. Eventually, Pratt & Whitney’s investment of its own funds would pay-off handsomely.

Adaptive-cycle realized

Meanwhile, after six years of development, General Electric began testing its ADVENT demonstrator engine on November 26, 2013. ADVENT engine testing is ongoing and is currently scheduled to end later this year—in the mid- to late-summer timeframe.

“We have a full-up adaptive-cycle technology engine here at Evendale [Ohio],” McCormick said. “It’s not an engine that just has the adaptive-cycle feature, but it really is a full-up engine that has all of the suite of technologies that are being matured for these next-generation propulsion systems.”

The General Electric ADVENT engine has an adaptive-fan, which creates a third stream of air, an extremely high-pressure compressor, a new combustion system, various new materials such as ceramic matrix composites and cooling technologies, McCormick said.

In testing, the General Electric ADVENT design’s core engine temperature exceeded its goal by more than 130 degrees Fahrenheit. According to the company, the engine set a record for the highest combined compressor and turbine temperature in the history of jet engine propulsion as validated by AFRL.

Further, McCormick said that the ADVENT demonstrator engine is actually exceeding expectations in many cases including for fuel burn. The fuel efficiency target for ADVENT was to reduce fuel-burn by 25 percent.

The AFRL’s follow-on Adaptive Engine Technology Development (AETD) program is intended to bring the technologies developed under ADVENT into a flight-worthy design. ADVENT was primarily aimed at proving that a working adaptive-cycle engine is feasible. Engineers did not take into account the weight, size or other factors that would enable the engine to physically fit into an operational aircraft.

“AETD is taking that suite of technologies that ADVENT is bringing forward and maturing and now looking at how those get packaged into designs we could physically fit into airplanes,” McCormick said.

But AETD is not a direct continuation of the ADVENT effort. The Air Force held a fresh competition for the follow-on program, and in the end General Electric and Pratt & Whitney prevailed while Rolls-Royce was knocked out of contention.

Unlike the ADVENT program, the AETD effort will not produce a complete engine.

Preliminary designs

This is a Lockheed Martin concept for a sixth-generation concept aircraft to replace the F-22 Raptor. The Air Force released a request to arm its next generation fighters with offensive lasers. Lockheed Martin Illustration

This is a Lockheed Martin concept for a sixth-generation concept aircraft to replace the F-22 Raptor. The Air Force released a request to arm its next generation fighters with offensive lasers. Lockheed Martin Illustration

However, the companies are required to take a complete engine design to a preliminary design review (PDR). Originally that PDR was scheduled for November 2014, but the Air Force encouraged General Electric and Pratt & Whitney to push it back to February 2015.
There were two reasons to push the PDR back. One major reason is that the NextGen follow-on to AETD may not start until fiscal year 2016.

“That’s a FY16 start, and so by moving the preliminary design review milestone a little bit to the right, that helps us with levelizing the manpower,” McCormick said.
“The second reason is that AFRL was interest and in fact encouraged us to move it to the right to better align with the current preliminary design review schedule of our competitor.”

For the AETD program, there are two phases of testing. The first phase includes several combustor rigs—one of which is a full annular combustor. Additionally, General Electric is will test an exhaust system integration rig and components using CMCs, all of which should be completed by early 2015.

“We have testing going on as we speak primarily in the combustor area,” McCormick said.
“In fact we are on our third separate combustor design—combustor rig test plan. We also have an upcoming nozzle test that we’ll be running over at NASA in Cleveland [Ohio] here over the summer.”

The second phase of testing includes a fan rig, a compressor rig, and a core engine test. The General Electric plans to test the fan and compressor in late 2015 and early 2016 before the finale in late 2016 with the core engine test.

“There is no full-up engine test in AETD,” McCormick said. “There was no requirement or need to do a full-up engine test for us in AETD.”

Following AETD, the next step towards an operational adaptive-cycle engine is the Air Force NextGen program. Earlier in the year, Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel announced that there would be $1 billion invested into bringing an advanced engine into production. However, at present there are few details available on exactly how development will proceed.

  • canada101

    just not another jsf boondoggle please

  • RunningBear

    Electrical power generation will also be a large energy consumer for the new engine types; regardless of a/c type. The mission systems power consumption steadily increases with additional functions added by program/ hardware upgrades and addition of I/O systems.

  • sferrin

    I would argue that the first variable cycle turbine engine was the J58.

    • airider

      sferrin,
      Sorry I didn’t see your comment before I posted mine…concur!!!!

  • Don Bacon

    We should cancel the JSF and just buy a bunch of these engines. They look nice.

  • Ctrot

    It’s all a pipe dream. As the welfare state sucks up every increasing piles of cash the defense department will continue to shrink. These 6th gen fighter ideas will be the first to be cut.

    • TeaBagObamaChin

      Vote these socialist dems out of office so we can impeach Obama. Than things will turn around..Obama is intentionally hurting our nation.

  • PC402

    Nice technology, put it in a Skyhawk. A-4’sForever!

  • Publicus

    Why does the Boeing proposed design look VERY similar to the 1940’s Horton Flying Wing interceptor?

  • http://mlxxxtimislegioix@gmail.wordpress.com Secundius

    After the Joint Strike Fighter Competition. The old aphorism holds true. “If your Not Cheating, Your Not Trying Hard Enough.” I’m starting to wonder who was the bigger cheat. Boeing or Lockheed-Martin!!!

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  • airider

    Is it just me or does all this engine stuff look a lot like the J58 design the SR-71 used? A bit more modern (high bypass turbofan included and a “3rd stream”), but the airflow principles they talk about come right out of the 1950’s….”what’s old is new again”….or better, “we already solved this problem so let’s not relearn it.”

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    • Paladin

      I thought the same thing however, the J58 is a turbo jet with the bypass flow used for the back-end ram jet: only two streams. It’s also a good bet that the J58 is a gas guzzler compared to these designs.

  • Ravi

    हिन्दू – हिन्दी – हिंदुस्थान सनातन आर्य वीरो का प्रथम अधिकार है, ऑर ये मे भारतीयो को दिलवाकर ही दम लुगा। यज्ञ रूपी क्रांती के इस पावन हवन में, मैं तन -मन – धन का सर्वोच्च बलिदान करूगा। – कुँवर रविन्द्र सिंह राजपुरोहित

    • Paladin

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  • Ravi

    यदि सिंह अहिंसक हो जाए , गीदड़ भी शौर्य दिखाते हैं,
    यदि गरुड़ संत सन्यासी हो , बस सर्प पनपते जाते हैं l
    इस शांति अहिंसा के द्वारा ही , अपना नाश आरंभ हुआ,
    जब से अशोक ने शस्त्र त्यागें , भारत का विनाश प्रारंभ हुआ ।।

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  • http://works.bepress.com/retrodynamic/1/ RETRODYNAMIC

    Technology Submission – Novel Rotary-Turbo-InFlow Tech – Featured Development

    GEARTURBINE PROJECT
    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic
    Technology Proposal Submission
    Novel Fueled Motor Engine Atypical Type

    *State of the art Innovative concept Top system Higher efficient percent.
    Have similar system of the Aeolipile Heron Steam device from Alexandria 10-70 AD. -New Form-Function Motor-Engine Device. Next Step, Epic Design Change, Broken-Seal Revelation. -Desirable Power-Plant Innovation.

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    *8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE – Way Steps:
    1)1-Compression / bigger
    2)2-Turbo 1 cold
    3)2-Turbo 2 cold
    4)2-Combustion – circular motion flames / opposites
    5)2-Thrust – single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang
    6)2-Turbo 2 hot
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    -Non waste parasitic looses for; friction, cooling, lubrication & combustion.

    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia positive tendency motion. Kinetic Rotating Mass.

    -Combustion 2Two continue circular [Rockets] flames. [ying yang] opposite one to the other. – With 2TWO very long distance INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS. -4 TURBOS Rotary Total Thrust-Power Regeneration Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [Small] Planetary Gears at polar position. -Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. -Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature profile. -3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine. *Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 All Rights Reserved. Carlos Barrera.

    • Paladin

      Spam somewhere else.

      • http://works.bepress.com/retrodynamic/1/ RETRODYNAMIC

        Spam?
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        • Paladin

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          • http://works.bepress.com/retrodynamic/1/ RETRODYNAMIC

            Yes Man, Sure.
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            But tell me, this is not, a good place, to talk about, inventions innovation, technology, research, new concepts designs, global changes, etc… Why not.

  • http://works.bepress.com/retrodynamic/1/ RETRODYNAMIC

    Technology Submission – Imploturbocompressor

    – The InFlow Interaction comes from Macro-Flow and goes to Micro-Flow by Implossion – *Excellence in Design 1 Moving Part System – 1 Compression Step, Inflow, compression and out flow at one circular motion system.

    *-“Excellence in Design” because is only one moving part. Only one unique compression step. Inflow and out flow at the same one system, This invention by its nature a logic and simple conception in the dynamics flow mechanics area. The invention is a wing made of one piece in a rotating motion, contained in a pair cavity system connected by implocavity, and interacting dynamically with a flow, that passes internally “Imploded” through its simple mechanism. This flow can be gas (air) or liquid (water). And have two diferents aplications, in two diferents form-function; this one can be received (using the dynamic flow passage, as a receiver). Or it can be generated (with a power plant, generating a propulsion).

    Presenting one of the many diferents examples, could specifically be this same invention applied in pair in every bar end, similar to what would be a turbine reaction or turbocompressor, and making the best profit of a exhaust gas dynamic flow, compressing a new air entrance and therefore falling into the technical field of the reaction turbines. This of course, considerating materials that are resistant to the high temperatures such as the ceramics ones. And furthermore this invention approaches more the combustion point and therefore also more to the gases expansion point, in order to search a higher expanding dynamic strength. It could, for example, be presented into an inter dynamic rotor system (aplication), supported internally and in a rotating system. And likewise being able to activate a new concept of dynamic turbine by pushing gearing, and likewise, creating a new technical field. Or can be in a more simple way by means of the system of this same invention applied to the bar end, but without a movement of interaction with the rotor, only the rotary dynamics in a static point for any type of mechanical work such as a dynamo in order to generate electricity through the dynamic strength of a flow when it is rotating at the moment it receives it, just like a pelton well do.

    And when the flow that is received and that is intended to be used at best, must no necessarily by a exhausting or rejection gas, but must be a dynamic passing gas or liquid flow with the only intention to count it or to measure it. This could be possible at the passing and interacting period when it passes inside its simple mechanism. This can be in any point of the flow trajectory.

    In case the flow that is received is a water falling by gravity, and a dynamo is placed on the rotary bar, the Imploturbocompressor can profit an be obtained by generating? electricity such as obtained by the pelton well, like I say before.

    Or only receive the liquid flow, in order to measure its passage with a counter placed on the bar, because when this flow passes through the simple mechanism of a rotating wing made of only one piece it interacts within the implocavities system. And this flow can be air wind, with the diference of can have an horizontal position, and have wind from all the sides and all the time. The aforementioned information about this invention refers to technical applications, such as a dynamic flow receiver. (whether being gas or liquid).

    Connecting the free end of the bar of this invention to a power plant (manual, electrical, mechanical, or combusting, etc…), there will be available a capacity and a position in order to generate the flow dynamics (or even better, a propulsion). This applied? to gas flows (air) or to liquid flow (water). This of course, considering the due rotating directions as well as the inclination, wings, curvature and the due dimensioning for every application of every technical field.

    With the appropriate power plant and the appropriate dimensioning and number of RPM this invention is also feasible to generate an atmospheric air propulsion and the autoprolpusion of an aircraft. Being an effective and very simple system that implodes and compresses the atmospheric air permits the creation of a new concept of propulsion for aircrafts, due to its simple mechanism and innovative nature. At the place of the aircraft were the system appears and the manner how the propulsion direction can be oriented with a vectorial flow (no lobster tail) with I call “yo-yo system” (middle cut (at the shell) to move, one side loose), guided and balanced is feasible to create a new concept of TOVL-vertical take-off landing, I wish good for a wild conditions. Because the exhaust propulsion can going out radial in all the 360 vectorial positions, going out direct all the time in all the vectors direction. With his rotor cover for an better furtive fly, like going down of a bridge for example.

    The “Imploturbocompressor”, is a good option to pump water, or a gas flow, and all kinds of pipes lines dynamic moves.

    Likewise, with the due form and dimensioning, and considering the liquid density and the due revolutions for this element there could be generated a propulsion (water) in order to move an aquatic ship, whether on surface or under water.

    Also can be a good option to pump liquid combustion for a rocket propulsion.

    Making a metaphoric comparison with the intention to expose it more clearly for a better comprehension of this innovative technical detail, it would be similar to the trajectory and motion of a dynamic flow compared with a rope (extended) that passes through the system would have now a knot (without obstructing the flow), so the complete way of the flow at the imploturbocompresor system have three direct ways and bettween make two diferents turns; direct way (entrance) – turn – direct way (implocavity) – turn – direct way (exit), all this in a circular move system.

    Its prudent to mention that the curves and the inclinations of the blades of a rotating wing made of this invention, is conferred by its shape and function a structural rigidity allowing it to conduct and alter appropriately the dynamic flow passing through its system.

    This invention are very versatile, can be applied and used for any kind of flow, whether as gas or as a liquid, received or be generating it.? And it has different technical fields, being applied in any circumstance where the intention is to obtain an profitable work, to modify on his imploflow system.

  • http://works.bepress.com/retrodynamic/1/ RETRODYNAMIC

    Technology Submission – Novel Rotary-Turbo-InFlow Tech – Featured Development

    GEARTURBINE PROJECT

    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic

    Technology Proposal Submission

    Novel Fueled Motor Engine Type

    *State of the art Innovative concept Top system Higher efficient percent.

    Have similar system of the Aeolipile Heron Steam device from Alexandria 10-70 AD. -New Form-Function Motor-Engine Device. Next Step, Epic Design Change, Broken-Seal Revelation. -Desirable Power-Plant Innovation.

    YouTube; * Atypical New • GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM VS LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type – Non Waste Looses

    -This innovative concept consists of hull and core where are held all 8 bteps of the work-flow which make the concept functional. The core has several gears and turbines which are responsible for these 8 steps (5 of them are dedicated to the turbo stages). The first step is fuel compression, followed by 2 cold turbo levels. The fourth step is where the fuel starts burning – combustion stage, which creates thrust for the next, 5th step – thrust step, which provides power to the planetary gears and turbines and moves the system. This step is followed by two hot turbo steps and the circle is enclosed by the final 8th step – bigger turbine. All this motion in a retrodynamic circumstance effect, wich is plus higher RPM speed by self motion. The Reaction at front of the action.

    *8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE – Way Steps:

    1)1-Compression / bigger

    2)2-Turbo 1 cold

    3)2-Turbo 2 cold

    4)2-Combustion – circular motion flames / opposites

    5)2-Thrust – single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang

    6)2-Turbo 2 hot

    7)2-Turbo 1 hot

    8)1-Turbine / bigger

    -With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front to front; “Collision-Interaction Type” – inflow vs blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. The Reaction at front of the action. A very strong Novel torque power concept.

    -Non waste parasitic looses for; friction, cooling, lubrication & combustion.

    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia positive tendency motion. Kinetic Rotating Mass.

    -Combustion 2Two continue circular [Rockets] flames. [ying yang] opposite one to the other. – With 2TWO very long distance INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS. -4 TURBOS Rotary Total Thrust-Power Regeneration Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [Small] Planetary Gears at polar position. -Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. -Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature profile. -3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine. *Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 All Rights Reserved. Carlos Barrera.